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タイトル 段階的なヴァイオリン奏法の習得をめざす教材開発の視点 : アンサンブル活動を主体とした学習プログラムの提案<教育科学>
A Viewpoint for Developing Teaching Material Aimed at the Step-By-Step Acquisition of Violin Playing Techniques : Proposal for a learning program centered on ensemble activities
伊藤, 誠 (ITO, Makoto)
埼玉大学教育学部音楽教育講座 (Faculty of Education (Music Department), Saitama University)
出版者 埼玉大学教育学部
出版年: 2015 - 2015
作成日: 2015-10-09
埼玉大学紀要. 教育学部 (Journal of Saitama University. Faculty of Education). Vol.64, No.2  (2015. ) ,p.51- 62
抄録 This paper reviews the implementation of the “Stringed Instrument Practice” course, which was taught by the author, who normally teaches every year, during the second semester of the 2013 academic year (a total of 15 sessions), and describes the outcomes and challenges of the course1). The 22 students who took the course were mainly second-year students enrolled in the music major program. With the exception of a few, none of them had ever learned how to play the violin. This discussion will include the following sections: Research Background; Features and Research Plan of the Course; Relationship between the Left and Right Hands (playing techniques of each hand), The Joy of Ensemble Playing, the F Major Scale and Two Fingerings for the Scale, Musical Experiments with The Old Clock, and Conclusion.
When playing the violin, the functions and roles of the left and right hands are completely different. To teach playing techniques that contain various inherent difficulties, scrupulous research into teaching materials and careful instruction planning are necessary. This time, I considered in particular instructional methods that emphasize the relationship between the playing techniques of each hand and the corresponding procedures for doing so. One feature of this class is that it centers on ensemble activities. While the diverse range of teaching materials includes nursery rhymes and children’s songs, Ministry of Education songs for schoolchildren, major and minor scales, and art songs2), I established a direction and objective to use playing techniques unique to stringed instruments from the very first step, and to have students create and enjoy beautiful harmonies by listening to each other. In conceiving this learning program, I made use of past teaching experience and established eight elements related to playing techniques. There are three for the left hand (“Four Formations,” “Effective Use of Open Strings,” and “Function of the Thumb”) and five for the right hand (“Two Articulations,” “Moving Across the Strings,” “Long and Short Bowing,” “Awareness of Finger Joints,” and “Weight”). We expressed these eight elements, which are based on the author’s own theoretical system, as part of the analysis of teaching material, instructional content of scale practice, and development of ways of musical expression. The learning content of The Old Clock, a teaching piece taken up in the final phase of the course, includes understanding the reason for making the fourth finger a substitute finger for open string notes, making quick alternations between arco and pizzicato, applying the two types of bowing (martelé and détache), executing clear dynamics and accents, and using long bowing and short bowing in proportion to the values of notes, thereby simultaneously obtaining good placement of the part of the bow that is used. We pursued a step-by-step instructional method, maintaining the relationship between playing techniques of each hand all the way through to the final teaching piece (Oh, Susanna).
By indicating a clear challenge for each teaching point, I was able to formulate an instruction plan for the entire course, allowing accumulation of learning successes without the need for a major reorganization while the course was underway. Challenges are “improving right hand instructional methods,” “securing time for pair and group learning,” and “emphasizing step-by-step checks and check sheets.” From here on, I would like to continue our research with the aim of teaching classes that enable both students and teachers to obtain a satisfying sense of achievement.
1) The paper was compiled from the corrected and revised content of an oral presentation that was given at the 45th Conference of the Japan Music Education Society, which was held in October 2014. At the presentation, I introduced four videos of situations in which students were performing. Two materials that were handed out that day, “2013: Flow of Stringed Instrument Practice” and “Check Sheet (Right Hand),” are also reprinted herein.
2) We took up four songs (Banjo Tune, Jig, Polka, and The Old Clock) from New Tunes for Strings (total of two volumes), compiled by Stanley Fletcher.
instruction method
practice record
playing technique research
資源タイプ text
ジャンル Departmental Bulletin Paper
著者版フラグ publisher
/ Public / 埼玉大学 / 教育学部
/ Public / 主題別 / 社会科学 / 教育学 / 教科教育学
/ Public / ジャンル別 / 研究紀要 / 埼玉大学 / 教育学部紀要